Research On Other SIDS Risk Factors

In addition to placing babies on their backs to sleep for naps and at night, as discussed earlier, parents and caregivers can reduce the risk of SIDS and other sleep-related causes of infant death by guarding against several other sleep environment dangers.

Some of these include:


  1. American Academy of Pediatrics, Task Force on Infant Sleep Position and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (2000).
  2. Hauck, F. R., et al. (2003). Sleep environment and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome in an urban population: The Chicago Infant Mortality Study. Pediatrics, 111(Suppl. 5), 1207-1214.
  3. Kemp, J. S., et al. (2000). Unsafe sleep practices and an analysis of bed-sharing among infants dying suddenly and unexpectedly: result of a four-year, population-based, death-scene investigation study of sudden infant death syndrome and related deaths. 2000. Pediatrics, 106(3), 1-8..
  4. Chowdhury, R. T. (2010). Nursery Product-Related Injuries and Deaths Among Children Under Age Five. Washington, DC: U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.
  5. American Academy of Pediatrics, Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (2005).
  6. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. (2012). Crib safety tips: Use your crib safely [Electronic version]. Retrieved June 19, 2013, from http://www.cpsc.gov/en/Safety-Education/Safety-Guides/Kids-and-Babies/Cribs/Crib-Safety-Tips1/.
  7. Fleming, P. J., Gilbert, R., & Azaz, Y. (1990). Interaction between bedding and sleeping position in the sudden infant death syndrome: A population-based case-control study. British Medical Journal, 301, 85-89.
  8. Gilbert, R., Rudd, P., & Berry, P. J. (1992). Combined effect of infection and heavy wrapping on the risk of sudden unexpected infant death. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 67, 171-177.
  9. Ponsonby, A. L., Dwyer, T., Gibbons, L., Cochrane, J. A., Jones, M. E., & McCall, M. J. (1992). Thermal environment and SIDS: Case-control study. British Medical Journal, 304, 277-282.
  10. Ponsonby, A.L., Dwyer, T., Gibbons, L. E., Cochrane, J. A., & Wang, Y. G. (1993). Factors potentiating the risk of sudden infant death syndrome associated with prone position. New England Journal of Medicine, 329, 377-382.
  11. Williams, S. M., Taylor, B. J., & Mitchell, E. A. (1996). Sudden infant death syndrome: Insulation from bedding and clothing and its effect modifiers. International Journal of Epidemiology, 25, 277-282.
  12. Blair, P. S., Mitchell, E. A., Heckstall-Smith, E. M., & Fleming, P. J. (2008). Head covering: A major modifiable risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome—a systemic review.. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 93(9), 778-783.
  13. Malloy, M. H., & Freeman, D. H. (2004). Age at death, season, and day of death as indicators of the effect of the Back to Sleep program on sudden infant death syndrome in the United States, 1992–1999. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 158, 359-365.
  14. American Academy of Pediatrics, Task Force on Infant Sleep Position and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (2000).
  15. American Academy of Pediatrics, Task Force on Infant Sleep Position and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (2000).
  16. Ariagno, R. (1994). Smoking and the risk for SIDS [Electronic version]. Retrieved July 5, 2005, from http://sids-network.org/experts/smok.htm.
  17. Schoendorf, K. C., & Kiely, J. L. (1992). Relationship of sudden infant death syndrome to maternal smoking during and after pregnancy. Pediatrics, 90(6), 905-908.
  18. Ariagno, R. (1994).
  19. McMartin, K. I., Platt, M. S., & Hackman, R. (2002). Lung tissue concentrations of nicotine in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Journal of Pediatrics, 140, 205-209.
  20. McMartin, K. I., et al. (2002).
  21. Anderson, H. R., & Cook, D. G. (1999). Passive smoking and sudden infant death syndrome: Review of the epidemiological evidence. Thorax, 54, 365-366.
  22. Willinger, A., Ko, C., Hoffman, H., Kessler, R., & Corwin, M. (2003). Trends in infant bed sharing in the United States, 1993–2000: The National Infant Sleep Position Study. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 157, 43-49.
  23. Willinger, A., et al. (2003).
  24. American Academy of Pediatrics, Task Force on Infant Sleep Position and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (2011). Technical Report -SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: expansion of recommendation for a safe infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics, 128(5), 1030-1039.
  25. Hauck, F. R., et al. (2003). Sleep environment and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome in an urban population: The Chicago Infant Mortality Study. Pediatrics, 111(Suppl. 5), 1207-1214.
  26. Scheers, N. J., Rutherford, G. W., & Kemp, J. S. (2003). Where should infants sleep? A comparison of risk for suffocation of infants sleeping in cribs, adult beds, and other sleeping locations. Pediatrics, 112(4), 883-889.
  27. Carpenter, R. G., et al. (2004). Sudden unexplained infant death in 20 regions in Europe: Case-control study. Lancet, 363, 185-191.
  28. Matthews, T., McDonnell, M., McGarvey, C., Loftus, G., & O'Regan, M. (2004). A multivariate "time based" analysis of SIDS risk factors. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 89, 267-271.
  29. Hauck, F. R., et al. (2003).
  30. Vennemann, M., et al. 2011. Bed sharing and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome: Can we resolve the debate? Journal of Pediatrics, 160(1), 44-48.
  31. Carpenter, R. G., et al. (2004).
  32. Tappin, D. M., Ecob, R., & Brooke, H. (2005). Bedsharing, roomsharing, and sudden infant death syndrome in Scotland: A case-control study. Journal of Pediatrics, 147(1), 32-37.
  33. Blair, P. S., et al. (1999). Babies sleeping with parents: Case-control study of factors influencing the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. British Medical Journal, 319(7223), 1457-1462.
  34. Carpenter, R. G., et al. (2004).
  35. Tappin, D. M., et al. (2005).
  36. Li, D. K., et al. (2003). Infant sleeping position and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome in California, 1997–2000. American Journal of Epidemiology, 157(5), 446-455.
  37. Mitchell, E. A., Thach, B. T., Thompson, J. M. D., & Williams, S. (1999). Changing infants' sleep position increases risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 153(11), 1136-1141.